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Taiwan Civil Code

TAIWAN CIVIL CODE

 

Chapter II Marriage

 

 

 

Section 1. Betrothal

Article 972

An agreement to marry shall be made by the male and the female parties in their own [con]cord.

Article 973

A male who has not reached his seventeenth year of age and a female her fifteenth [ma]y not make an agreement to marry.

Article 974

Where a minor makes an agreement to marry, he shall obtain the consent of his statutory agent in advance.

Article 975

No demand shall be made to force the performance of an agreement to marry.

Article 976

Where one of the betrothed parties is found in one of the following conditions, the [other] party may dissolve the agreement to marry:

(1) Where, having made an agreement to marry, the party made another agreement to marry or concluded a marriage with another person;
(2) Where the party willfully fails to observe the appointed date of marriage;
(3) Where the party's life has been uncertain for over a year;
(4) Where the party gets a serious and incurable disease;
(5) Where the party gets a venereal or other loathsome disease;
(6) Where, having made the agreement to marry, the party becomes permanently disabled;
(7) Where, having made the agreement to marry, the party had sexual intercourse with a third person;
(8) Where, having made the agreement to marry, the party was sentenced to imprisonment;
(9) Where other grave reasons exist.

In the case where a person intends to dissolve an agreement to marry according to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, and if the circumstances do not allowed him to declare such intention to the other party, it is not necessary for him to do so, and he is no longer bound by the agreement since the conditions described in the preceding paragraph have occurred.

Article 977

Where an agreement to marry has been dissolved in accordance with the provisions of the preceding article, the innocent party may claim compensation from the other party who is at fault for damage thus sustained.
In the case provided in the preceding paragraph, the injured party may still claim an equitable compensation in money for a non-pecuniary loss. The right to claim in the preceding paragraph shall not be assigned to others or be passed to heirs, unless it has been acknowledged by a contract or unless an action has been commenced.

Article 978

One party to an agreement to marry, who breaks it without any of the grounds provided in Article 976, shall be liable to compensate the other party for any damage thus sustained.

Article 979

In the case provided in the preceding article, the injured party may still claim an equitable compensation in money for a non-pecuniary loss, provide that he is not at fault.
The claim in the preceding paragraph shall not be assigned to others or be passed to heirs, unless it has been acknowledged by a contract or unless an action has been commenced.

Article 979-1

One party may claim the other party for returning gift presented for betrothal when the agreement to marry is null and void, or dissolved, or annulled.

Article 979-2

The claim pursuant to the provisions in Article 977 through Article 979-1 shall be extinguished if it is not exercised within two years.

Section 2. Conclusion of Marriage

Article 980

A man who has not completed his eighteenth year of age and a woman her sixteenth may not conclude a marriage.

Article 981

A minor must have the consent of his statutory agent for concluding a marriage.

Article 982

A marriage must be celebrated by open ceremony and in the presence of two or more witnesses. Persons who have registered for marriage in accordance with the Household Registration Act shall be presumed as married.

Article 983

A person may not marry any of the following relatives:

(1) A lineal relative by blood or by marriage;
(2) A collateral relative by blood is within the sixth degree of relationship. The limit to marriage shall not be applicable to persons of lineal relative within the fourth degree of relationship and collateral relative within the sixth degree of relationship by adoption.
(3) A collateral relative by marriage is within the fifth degree of relationship of a different rank.

The marriage prohibitions between relatives by marriage provided in the preceding paragraph shall continue to apply even after the dissolution of the marriage which has created the relationship. The limit to marriage with the lineal relative by blood or by marriage set forth in the first paragraph hereof shall be applicable to persons of lineal relative by adoption after ending of the adoption relationship.

Article 984

A guardian may not marry his ward during the continuance of guardianship, unless consent of the ward's parents has been obtained.

Article 985

A person who has a spouse may not contract another marriage. A person shall not marry with two or more persons simultaneously.

Article 986

(Repealed)

Article 987

(Repealed)

Article 988

A marriage is void in any of the following cases:

(1) Where it dose not conform to the form provided by Article 982.

(2) Where it violates the marriage prohibition as provided in Article 983 or Article 985.

Article 989

Where a marriage is concluded contrary to the provision of Article 980, the party concerned or his statutory agent may apply to the court for its annulment; but such application may not be made, where the party concerned has attained the age specified in the said article or where the woman has become pregnant.

Article 990

Where a marriage is concluded contrary to the provision of Article 981, the statutory agent may apply to the court for its annulment; but such application may not be made where six months have elapsed after the discovery of the fact or one year has elapsed after the conclusion of the marriage, or where the woman has become pregnant.

Article 991

Where a marriage is concluded contrary to the provision of Article 984, the ward or his nearest relative may apply to the court for its annulment; but such application may not be made where one year has elapsed after the conclusion of the marriage.

Article 999-1

The provisions in Article 1057 and Article 1058 shall be applicable mutatis mutandis to invalid marriage.
The provisions in Article 1055, Article 1055-1, Article 1055-2, Article 1057 and Article 1058 shall be applicable mutatis mutandis to annulled marriage.

Section 3. Efficacy of Marriage

Article 1000

The husband and the wife should keep his or her own surname. Unless one party shall prefix to his or her surname that of the spouse in writing at the household administration authority. The party who prefixed to his or her surname that of the spouse shall return to his or her own surname. But only one time for change during the continuance of the marriage relationship.

Article 1001

The husband and the wife are under mutual obligation to cohabit, unless for a good cause they cannot live together.

Article 1002

The domicile of the husband and the wife shall be agreed by mutual agreement; if it has not been agreed or can not be agreed, it may depend on the court by application.
Before the ruling of the court, it will be presumed the common household domicile as the domicile of the husband and the wife.

Article 1003

In daily household matters, the husband and the wife act as agents for each other. Where one of the parties abuses the aforesaid right of agency, the other party may restrict it, but such restriction cannot be set up against any bona fide third party.

Article 1003-1

The payment for living expenses of the household will be shared by the husband and the wife according to each party's economical ability, household labor or other conditions unless otherwise provided for by law or mutual agreement. The husband and the wife will be jointly liable for debts incurred by the expenses of the preceding paragraph.

Article 1004

The husband and the wife may, before or after getting married, adopt by contract one of the contractual regimes provided by this Code as their matrimonial property regime.

Article 1005

Where the husband and the wife have not contracted the holding of matrimonial property, unless otherwise provided by this Code, the statutory regime shall be applied.

Article 1006

(Repealed)

Article 1007

The conclusion, modification or termination of a contract for the holding of matrimonial property must be done in writing.

Article 1008

The conclusion, modification or termination of a contract for the holding of matrimonial property may not be a valid defense against any third party unless it has been registered. Registration provided in the preceding paragraph will not affect any other registration of the property right according to the other law. Registration provided in the first paragraph shall be regulated by a particular law.

Article 1008-1

The provisions in the preceding two articles shall be applicable mutatis mutandis to other agreements pertaining to matrimonial property.

Article 1009

Where either the husband or the wife is declared bankrupt, the separation of property regime shall be applied.

Article 1010

Either the husband or the wife is in any of the following circumstances, the court may, at the instance of the other party, order the application of the separation of property regime:

(1) Where liable for the living expenses of the household but failed to provide such;
(2) Where either the husband or the wife is in a state of insolvent;
(3) Where according to the law, the disposition of property requires the consent of the other party, but such consent is refused without a good cause;

(4) Where one party who is entitled to manage has obviously managed the common property improperly, and failed to make any improvement thereon by request of the other;
(5) Where one party improperly reduced his own property acquired in marriage and this may endanger the other's right to claim for distribution of the remainder [of the property];

(6) Where any other gross event has occurred. Where the husband and the wife are both in a state of insolvent, or where they could hardly maintained their common living, and have not lived together for more than six months, provisions in the preceding paragraph will be applicable to both of them.

Article 1011

Where a creditor could not be satisfied in the attachment of the property of either the husband or the wife, the court may, at the instance of the creditor, order the application of the separation of property regime.

Article 1012

During the continuance of the marriage, the husband and the wife may, by contract, terminate their contract for the holding of property, or adopt any other contractual regime.

Article 1013

(Repealed)

Article 1014

(Repealed)

Article 1015

(Repealed)

Article 1016

(Repealed)

Article 1017

The property of either the husband or the wife shall be divided into the property acquired before marriage and the property acquired in marriage, and shall be owned respectively. If the property could not be proven to be the property acquired before marriage or in marriage, it shall be presumed as the property acquired in marriage; it the property could not be proven to be owned by the husband or the wife, it shall be presumed as owned by the husband and the wife jointly. The remains of fruits gained from the property acquired either by the husband or the wife before marriage during the continuance of the marriage relationship shall be deemed as the property acquired in marriage. If the husband and the wife have contracted the holding of matrimonial property, and then adopted the statutory regime, the property before the adoption shall be deemed as the property acquired before marriage.

Article 1018

The husband or the wife would manage, use, collect fruits from, and dispose his or her own property respectively.

Article 1018-1

With the exception of the living expenses of the household, the husband and the wife may contract a certain amount of money paid by one for the other's free disposition.

Article 1019

(Repealed)

Article 1020

(Repealed)

Article 1020-1

Where the husband or the wife's gratuitous act on his or her property acquired in marriage during the continuance of the marriage relationship endangers the other's right to claim for distribution of the remainder [of the property] upon the termination of the relationship over the statutory regime, the other may apply to the court for its annulment, except it was a proper gift for performing a moral obligation. Where the husband or the wife's non-gratuitous act on his or her property acquired in marriage during the continuance of the marriage relationship endangers the other's right to claim for distribution of the remainder [of the property] upon the termination of the relationship over the statutory regime, the other may apply to the court for its annulment only if it was done with knowledge of the endangerment and the beneficiary knew this upon the receipt of the benefit as well.

Article 1020-2

The claim for annulment provided in the preceding paragraph shall be extinguished if it is not exercised within six months from the time when the husband or the wife has known the reason for annulment, or if one year has elapsed from the time when the act has been committed.

Article 1021

(Repealed)

Article 1022

The husband or the wife is under an mutual obligation to inform the other of the condition of his or her property acquired in marriage.

Article 1023

The husband or the wife is respectively liable for his or her own debts. When the husband or the wife discharges the other's debts with his or her own property, even if it is during the continuance of the marriage relationship, he or she may claim for payback.

Article 1024

(Repealed)

Article 1025

(Repealed)

Article 1026

(Repealed)

Article 1027

(Repealed)

Article 1028

(Repealed)

Article 1029

(Repealed)

Article 1030

(Repealed)

Article 1030-1

Upon termination of the relationship over the statutory regime, the remainder of the property acquired by the husband or the wife in marriage, after deduction of debts incurred during the continuance of the marriage relationship, if any, shall be equally distributed to the husband and the wife, except the property acquired from:

(1) Succession or a gift;
(2) Solatium.

The court shall adjust or release the share of distribution provided that equal distribution referred to in the preceding paragraph is obviously unfair. The right to claim provided in the first paragraph shall not be assigned to others or be passed to heirs, unless it has been acknowledged by a contract or an action has been commenced. The right to claim for distribution of the remainder [of the property] referred to in the first paragraph shall be extinguished if it is not exercised within two years from the time when the claimant has known that there is such a remainder, or if five years has elapsed from the termination of the relationship over the statutory regime.

Article 1030-2

If the husband or the wife discharged his or her debts incurred before marriage with his or her property acquired in marriage, or if discharged his or her debts incurred during the continuance of the marriage relationship with his or her property acquired before marriage, unless this property has been made up, it shall be counted into the remainder of the property acquired in marriage or the debts incurred during the continuance of the marriage relationship upon the termination of the relationship over the statutory regime. If the husband or the wife discharged his or her debts with his or her property described as the exception in the first paragraph of the preceding article, the provisions provided in the preceding paragraph shall be applied.

Article 1030-3

If the husband or the wife, in order to reduce the other's share of distribution of the remainder [of the property], disposed his or her property acquired in marriage within five years before the termination of the relationship over the statutory regime, this property shall be counted into, and deemed as the remainder of the property acquired in marriage, except the disposition was a proper gift for performing a moral obligation. In the preceding paragraph, where one who is obligated to pay the share of distribution [of the remainder of the property] could not pay off those the other is entitled to receive, the one who is entitled to receive may claim to the third party for restituting the shortness of the share to the extent that the third party is benefited; however if the third party is not gratuitously benefited, the claim for restituting [the shortness of the share] may be made only if the third party is benefited from an obviously uneven payment. The claim to the third party provided in the preceding paragraph shall be extinguished if it is not exercised within two years from the time when the claimant has known the infringement of distribution right [of the remainder of the property], or if it has elapsed five years from the termination of the relationship over the statutory regime.

Article 1030-4

The value of the remainder of the property by the husband or the wife acquired in marriage shall be counted at the termination of the relationship over the statutory regime; however if the relationship is terminated by a juridical decree of divorce, it shall be count at the commencement of the action. The value of the property counted into the remainder of the property acquired in marriage referred to in the preceding article shall be counted at the time of the disposition.

Article 1031

With the exception of separate property, all the property and income of the husband and the wife constitute common property to be owned by them in common.

Article 1031-1

The following constitutes the separate property:

(1) Articles which are exclusively intended for the personal use of the husband or the wife;
(2) Articles which are essential to the occupation of the husband or the wife;
(3) Gifts acquired by the husband or the wife which the donor has designated in writing to be the separate property.

The separate property provided in the preceding paragraph is governed by the provisions concerning the separation of property regime.

Article 1032

The husband and the wife manage the common property jointly except it has been agreed by the party who is entitled to manage. The cost of management is borne out of the common property.

Article 1033

Either the husband or the wife must have the consent of the other for disposing of the common property. The absence of such consent cannot be set up against a third party, unless he knew or had the means of knowing its absence, or unless the property in question could have, under the circumstances, been regarded as part of the common property.

Article 1034

Debts incurred by the husband or the wife before or during the continuance of the marriage relationship, should be chargeable to the common property and should be respectively liable to the extent of the separate property.

Article 1035

(Repealed)

Article 1036

(Repealed)

Article 1037

(Repealed)

Article 1038

Debts payable out of the common property, where have been paid out of the common property, no claim for compensation will arise. Debts payable out of the common property, where have been paid out of the separate property, or debts payable out of the separate property, where have been paid out of the common property, the claim for compensation shall arise and can be made even during the continuance of the marriage relationship.

Article 1039

Upon the death of one of the husband and the wife, half the common property shall pass to the heir of the deceased and the other half shall devolve on the surviving party. In the case of the division of property mentioned in the preceding paragraph, where some other agreement exists as to the amounts, such agreement shall be followed. In the case provided in the first paragraph, where the surviving party is by law unable to inherit, he may not claim a greater portion of the common property than he would get in the case of divorce.

Article 1040

On the dissolution of the community of property regime, each of the husband and the wife gets back the property of contracting for the holding of matrimonial property, unless otherwise provided for by law. The common property was caused during the continuance of the community of property regime, each of the husband and the wife acquires a half of the property, unless otherwise provided for by contract.

Article 1041

The husband and the wife may agree by contract that the common property shall consist only of labor income. Labor income as specified in the first paragraph comprises earnings from salary, wage, shares, bonus and the other related income acquired by the husband and the wife during the continuance of marriage relationship, as well as the interests and substitute profits of the labor income.
The property could not be proven as the labor income or the other property rather than labor income, will be presumed as labor income. The property rather than the earnings of the husband or the wife is governed by the provisions concerning the separation of property regime. The provisions in Article 1034, Article 1038 and Article 1040 shall be applicable mutatis mutandis to the first paragraph.

Article 1042

(Repealed)

Article 1043

(Repealed)

Article 1044

In the separation of property regime, the husband and the wife each retains the ownership, and each party manages, uses, collects fruits from and disposes his or her own property respectively.

Article 1045

(Repealed)

Article 1046

The liability of debts incurred by the husband or the wife in the separation of property regime shall apply the provisions in Article 1023.

Article 1047

(Repealed)

Article 1048

(Repealed)

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